ENT Examination Unit,ENT, ear nose throat
ENT Examination Unit,ENT, ear nose throat ENT Examination Unit ENT Unit,ENT Examination Unit

Knowledge introduction about ENT Examination Unit

  


ENT Examination Unit Otolaryngology or ENT
ENT Treatment Unit, Medical Unit ENT Examination Technique
Malignant tumors of an ENT organs ENT Treatment Unit Summary

ENT Examination Unit
Only 2 compressors for both positive pressure and negative pressure with little noise and vibration;
Available to operate it simultaneously on both sides;
Advanced spray rod for the pulverization of liquid medicine;
Discharge pollution automatically; ENT Unit,ENT Examination Unit,ENT Treatment Unit
Stable performance in heating;
Technical parameter
Positive pressure pump: 2. 5kg / cm2; negative pressure pump: 740mm Hg; main suction bottle: 3000CC; sub suction bottle: 1000cc; cleaning device: air filter regulator;
Power: 1000w; voltage: 220v; frequency: 50 / 60HZ; throat preheater: 250w; weight: 15kg; cold light source: 250w; dimension: 145 (w) *73 (D) *90 (H) ;
Standard layout
Spray rod: curved 2pcs, straight 4pcs; suction device: 2pcs; blow device: 2pcs; spot light: 2pcs, 100-150w; tray: 1pc, 36*27cm; tampon container: 2pcs.
Optional accessories
Endoscope; endoscope optical impression system; image management system; ENT operating chair; cold light source
Article Source:
http://www.hiwtc.com/products/ent-examination-unit-2836-9294.htm

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 ENT Treatment Unit, Medical Unit
Description features:1)
As medical equipment that this device is used when doctor treats patient at E.N.T hospital.
This unit is medical treatment device for E.N.T which is consisted of spray for medical treatment, suction, illumination, instrument tray, instrument can and antifog device.When this equipment operates because of anti_noise heating device, noise does not produce and it is stoped automatically, after heating.This device is installed ultraviolet sterilizer, so can sterilize scope, instruments in 253.7nm��5% wavelength.As using japanese spray of good quality, breakdown is low.Instruments tray is maintained warm, because instruments tray is kept at fixed temperature(40��C), so patients received treatment with warm instruments (OPTION)By using Power LED in Penlight, doctor can observe precisely through light.This unit is installed "ENDOSCOPE infrared sterilizer", is hygienic and there is effect of Anti-fog and Endoscope storage is convenient.(OPTION)Specifications of ENT Treatment Total Unit cham CU-3000
Power SourceAC 220V, 50/60Hz
Power Consumption1200VA
Suction Motor(Main suction) 250W, GAST Oilless Motor pump
Max. Negative pressure 680mmHg,
Exhaust Volume 133.3 liter/min.
(Sub suction) 250W, GM TECH Oilless Motor pump
Max. Negative pressure 680mmHg,
Exhaust Volume 90 liter/min.
Dimension1800(W) x 709(D) x 850(H), POSTPOLE : 1925(H)mm
Net WeightApprox.127kg
Air CompressorPressure 1.0kgf/cm2 ��0.3Kg/cm2
Ultraviolet Sterilize 253.7nm �� 5%
Standard
Accessorieslllumination cool-ray lamp (220V, 100W)
Medicine bottle : White / Brown / Blue
Ointment Jar
Spray(Straight / curved)
Nasal Suction tip (#1~4)
Nasal Ventilation tip (#1~4)
Waste receptacle 105mm
Main suction bottle (3000cc)
Sub-suction bottle (1000cc)
Instrument tray with cover
Gauze container with cover
80mm can
53mm can
Chair connect consent (10P)
Warmer switch
Used Instrument receptacle
Endoscope UV sterilizer set
Main Fuse(10A)
Main Suction Fuse(4A)
Sub suction Fuse(3A)
Comp Fuse(4A)
Optional
AccessoriesMicroscope with Light source & Arm set
Post pole #2
Film View box with arm set
14" Monitor & Arm base set
CCD Camera mounted on the base set
Telescope Hander Related Keywords: Surgical Tables, Medical FurnitureView More details for this product
Article Source:
http://www.himfr.com/d-p115449544470257900-ENT_Treatment_Unit_Medical_Unit/

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ENT Treatment Unit Summary
We ply a broad gamut of ENT Treatment Unit and ENT treatment unit which is highlyENT Unit,ENT Examination Unit,ENT Treatment Unit characterized with its functions. ENT Examination Unit is exemplary sized model which is widely used in E.N.T. E.N.T treatment Unit in which the required tools for spray, vent &anti-fog function to be used for the medical examination & treatment of ear, nose and throat are installed. It is installed with Anti-fog system. It can be used with ENT chair and visual system. ENT Examination Unit can be operated and controlled by the switch in the control panel providing the easy and comfort treatment. The high tech design gives easy-installation and maintenance, flexibility of space and convenient patients-treatment. E.N.T chair operated full- automatically for the function of position setting (up, down, lie, rise, and rotation) according to the purpose of ear, nose and throat treatment or operation. It is fully automatic oil pressure examination chair which is generally used in E.N.T and Medicine part.
Article Source:
http://www.megamedicals.com/ent-treatment-unit.htm

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Malignant tumors of an ENT organs
From all cancerous neoplasms on a lobe of an ENT of organs 23 %, at men - 40 % are necessary, and the larynx cancer prevails. 65 % of all tumours of an ENT of organs are taped in the started condition. 40 % of patients die, not having lived and 1 year from the moment of diagnosis statement.

At sick the diagnosis at 34 %, a pharynx cancer - 55 % was a larynx cancer erroneous. At patients with localisation of tumours in a nasal cavity and its adnexal sinuses the erroneous diagnosis compounds 74 % of cases.

Thus it is possible to draw a conclusion, oncologic vigilance, especially in an
 ENT Examination Unit should be how much great.

Proceeding from classification of 1978 excrete:

>Not epithelial tumours:
>Soft tissues (connective-woven)
>The neurogenic
>Tumours from a muscular tissue
>Tumours from a fatty tissue
>Neuroepithelial tumours of bones and cartilage
>Epithelial
>Tumours of a lymphoid and hemopoietic tissue
>Enclavomas
>Secondary tumours
>Tumour-like formations
>In each of the given bunches excrete benign and malignant tumours. Also apply classification by system TNM.
1 - The tumour occupies one anatomical part.
2 - The tumour occupies 2 anatomical parts, or 1 anatomical part, but sprouts the next organ, amazing no more than one anatomical part.
3 - The tumour occupies more than 2 anatomical parts, or 2 anatomical parts + germination in next organs.
N0 - There are no regional metastasises
N1 - Regional metastasises secund and displaced
N2 - Regional metastasises bilateral displaced
N3 - Regional metastasises secund nonmotile
N4 - Regional metastasises bilateral nonmotile, or the secund conglomerate of metastasises sprouting in the next organs
0 - There are no remote metastasises
M - is the remote metastasises
Larynx malignant tumours
The cancer, almost always planocellular prevails, is rarer basal cell cancer. The larynx sarcoma meets was rarely.

The larynx cancer occupies 4 place among all malignant tumours from men, concedes to a carcinoma of the stomach, lungs and an esophagus. A case rate interrelation, a carcinoma of a larynx at men and women 22:1.

There is a cancer of a larynx at persons more youngly 30 years and is more senior 40 years, and at women 20 years are younger.

To brake the top part of a larynx - average is amazed, is even rarer - the inferior part.

Mainly there is an exophytic form of a cancer which grows slowly. At a tumour of an epiglottis process extends upwards and to front, at have swelled up average part of a larynx through a commissure or a guttural ventricle diffusion goes on the top part. The tumour of the inferior part of a larynx grows downwards through pencil-point ligament inpours on forward parts of a neck.

Earlier metastasizes a cancer of a vestibule of the larynx more often on the lesion party, and most slowly at a tumour of forward part of a larynx.

Excrete 3 seasons of development of tumours of a larynx:

>Initial - tickles, inconvenience at swallowing, sensation of a lump in a throat
>The season of full development of disease - arises hoarseness up to an aphonia, difficulty of breath up to an asphyxia, disturbance of swallowing up to full impossibility
The innidiation season
>The differential diagnosis spend with a tuberculosis, a scleroma, a syphilis. (Solving) histological research or carrying out of preventive therapy without enough good result is definitive.

ENT Examination Unit. More often - the larynx extirpation, is rarer - its resection, is even rarer - reconstructive operations. Before to start to surgical to treatment, necessarily effect a tracheotomy, for carrying out of an incubation narcosis, and for breath maintenance in the subsequent postoperative season.

Kinds of operations at a larynx cancer:

Endolaryngeal the oncotomy - is shown at a tumour of 1 stage, average part
Oncotomy outside access: and. A thyrotomy, a laryngofissure - at 2 stages, an average floor;. pharyngotomy infrahyoid. Effect at tumours of an unstable part of an epiglottis an epiglottis extirpation.
Larynx resection. Effect at tumour localisation in lobbies of 2/3 vocal cords with diffusion on a precomissure; at a lesion of one vocal cord; at the circumscribed cancer of the inferior part of a larynx; at the circumscribed cancer of the top part of a larynx under a condition inaction arytenoid cartilages.
Kinds of resections:

Lateral (sagittal)
Frontlateral (diagonal)
Lobby (face-to-face)
The horizontal
The laryngectomy - is effected, if the resection is impossible, or at the third stage
The amplate laryngectomy - leaves a larynx, a sublingual bone, a tongue root, lateral sides of a laryngopharynx. Operation invalidating. As a result the tracheostomy is formed and the esophageal probe for a food is introduced
Except surgical, use radial treatment. It start to perform before operation in 1 and 2 stages of process. If after half of sessions of treatment appreciable retrogress of a tumour radial therapy continue to a full dose (60-70 Gray) becomes perceptible. In cases when after half irradiatings retrogress of a tumour less than 50 % radial therapy interrupt and operate the patient. The cancer of an average floor of a larynx, and a cancer of the inferior part radio resistant is most radiosensitive. In case of presence of regional metastasises effect Krail's operation - the fat of lateral part of a neck, deep bulbar lymphonoduses, noddle muscles, an intrinsic bulbar vein, submandibular lymphonoduses, a submandibular sialaden leaves. In case of presence of the remote metastasises it is spent symptomatic and chemotherapy. An exception are metastasises in lungs, their operative treatment here is admissible.
Article Source:
http://knowledge-storage.com/medicine/37-medicine/155-malignant-tumors-ent-organs

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Otolaryngology or ENT
Otolaryngology
Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose and throat,
ENT Examination Unit) is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Practitioners are called otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, or sometimes otorhinolaryngologists (ORL). Otolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties to enter for physicians.

The term comes from the Classical Greek roots ὠ- - ot- (root of ὖς) "ear", ˦ѦԦæ- - laryng- (root of άѦԦæ) "larynx/throat", and the suffix -logy "study", and it literally means "the study of ear and neck".

The full term otorhinolaryngology (Neoclassical Greek and Modern Greek: ὠӦ()ѦɦͦϦ˦ѦԦææϦ˦Ϧί), also includes ῥɦͦ- - rhino- (root of ῥίς) "nose".
Explanation
Otolaryngologists are medical doctors (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each.

Following residency training some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality fellowship training which can be 1C2 years in duration (pediatric otolaryngology), Neuro-otology, Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rhinology or head and neck oncology.
Article Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otolaryngology

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ENT Examination Technique (ENT Examination Unit)
Ear Examination

NB. As well as assessing the appearance of the ear, a complete examination of the ear also involves an assessment of hearing. This is done in greater detail in the audiology section but basic tests of hearing can be done in the clinic or bedside.

History

The classic symptoms of ear disease are:

deafness
tinnitus
discharge (otorrhoea)
pain (otlagia)
vertigo
as well as these you may need to ask about other relevant features in the history:
previous ear surgery
head injury
systemic disease (e.g storke, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disease)
otoxic drugs (antibiotics, diuretics, cytotoxics)
exposure to noise at work or recreation (shooting)
family history of deafness
history of atopy and allergy in children

Inspection

Before examination with the otoscope / auroscope, the external ear should be inspected for any obvious abnormality including the following:

Size and shape of the pinna
Extra cartilage tags / pre-auricular sinuses or pits
Evidence of trauma to the pinna
Suspicious skin lesions on the pinna including neoplasia
Skin conditions of the pinna and external canal
Obvious infection of the external ear and canal with frank discharge
Evidence of previous surgery (scars)
The ear canal and drum itself are best examined with a modern electric otoscope / auroscope. It is essential that the batteries are in good condition as a dim light makes examination very difficult.
The pinna should be grasped between fore-finger and thumb and pulled posteriorly and superiorly during examination.This has the effect of staightening out the canal which normally has a slight curve, and allows better inspection of the tympanic membrane (TM) or eardrum. Very small infants and neonates have slightly different anatomy and it is usally recommended that the pinna is pulled posteriorly but not superioirly for examiation.
An appropriate sized end should be fitted on the otoscope.Although it is tempting to use a small end to make insertion easier, this severley restricts the image available, and the best view is acheived by using the largest end that will fit into the ear canal.
Holding the otoscope near the eyepeice end makes it less likely that you will cause the patient discomfort by making sudden or exagerated movement.
Holding the otoscope by it's end can lead to increased discomfort because movement of the hand is exaggerated in the ear

As well as the TM itself, make note of the condition of the the canal skin, the presence of any wax and any foreign body or discharge.

Tympanic Membrane


Although textbooks usually contain excellent pictures of the whole tympanic membrane, these are usually taken with wide angled endoscopes and using the otoscope, it is not always possible to see the whole drum in one single view. This is particulalry true where the anterioir wall is very prominent, and you will have to move the otoscope about to see the whole drum in several different views.

The drum is roughly circular and around 1cm in diameter. In a normal drum you should be able to identlify the following:

Handle / lateral process of the malleus
Light reflex / cone of light
Pars tensa and pars flaccida (attic)
ENT Examination Unit is occasionally possible to see some of the following structures through a very healthy thin drum:

Long process of incus
chorda tympani
eustachian opening
promontory of the cochlea
You should be able to identify some of the commoner pathological conditions related to the eardum:

perforations
tympanosclerosis
Glue ear / middle ear effusion.
Retractions of the drum
Haemotympanum (blood in the middle ear)
The mobility of the eardrum can be assessed by using a pneumatic speculum which attaches to the otoscope. This takes a bit of manual dexterity and practice, and is done more objectively using a tympanometer. (see audiology section)
If you are suspicious of any serious ear pathology, check the facial nerve function

Basic tests of hearing

Tuning fork tests.

These test hearing in both ears and can help distinguish between a sensorinueral and conductive hearing loss (for more details see section on types of deafness)

Ideally you should use a 512Hz tuning fork. If unavailable a 265Hz will suffice. Strike the tuning fork against your elbow or knee to make it vibrate. (this takes practice and may hurt if you get carried away...)

Striking it against a metal object can introduce unwanted harmonic vibrations into the sound signal.
DO NOT hit the patient on the head with it.

Tell the patient what you are doing and what you want them to do before you put the fok against their head. If you talk to them while you are doing the test it may confuse the result.

Weber Test Place the fork in the middle of the head (vertex). Ask the patient if he can hear the sound equally in both ears, or if it is louder on one side.
If the patient cannot hear the sound at all, try striking the fork again, or pressing it against the nose
......or even the upper teeth in the midline as this facilitates bone conduction

A patient with normal hearing should hear the sound equally in both ears.

If a patient has a unilateral conductive loss, the Weber will localise to the affected ear. (try putting your finger in your ear to block it up and repeat the test). If a patient has a unilateral sensorineural loss, the Weber will localise to the opposite / unnafected ear.

Rinne Test Place the fork behind the ear, pressing on the mastoid process (firmly)
and then hold the fork about three inches away from the ear .


In a normal ear, the patient should hear the tuning fork louder in front (air conduction) and quieter behind (bone conduction). This is called a Positive Rinne test. If the patient has a conductive hearing loss (usually of around 20dB or greater) then they will hear the bone conduction (behind the ear) louder than the iar condution and this is called a Negative Rinne test.
If a patient has a non-hearing ear on one side ('dead' ear), then they will still hear the bone conduction louder, becuase the sound will be transmitted around the skull and heard by the other cochlea. This is called a False Negative Rinne test.

Interpertation of Weber and Rinne Testing

Basic tests of hearing.

To make a basic assessment of a patients hearing, you need to mask the non test ear, say by inserting your finger into it, and then ask them to repeat random numbers (e.g 31, 45, 17, 64 etc) that you speak into the test ear. Start with a quiet whisper, then a 'stage' whisper, then quiet speech, loud speech and finally a shout, stop at the level at which the patient can accurately repeat the numbers you are giving them.


ENT Examination Unit is important that they cannot see your face as many deaf patients can lip read. Repeat this on the other side and you can get a rough measure of their hearing.


You could report this as (for example) "able to hear a quiet whisper at arms length on the right ear, but only able to hear a loud converationsal voice at arms length on the left"

Very roughly this might equate to the following level of hearing loss:

Able to understand following speech level at arms legth Hearing loss equivalent
Quiet whisper Normal
Loud whisper 20-30dB
Quiet voice 30-45dB
Loud voice 45-60dB
Shout 60-80dB

Hearing levels are objectively and accurately assessed by pure tone audiometery. (see Audiology section)

Ear Nose Throat Neck
Examination of the Nose

Examination of the nose also involves assessment of function: airway resistance and occasionally sense of smell. Examination of the nose is incomplete without looking into the mouth and pharynx.

History
The main symptoms of nasal disease are:
airway obstruction
runny nose (rhinorrhoea)
sneezing
loss of smell (anosmia)
facial pain due to sinusitis
snoring associated with nasal obstruction
In addition you may like to ask questions about some of the following, where relevant:
Allergies / atopic disease
Smoking
Pets at home
Occupation
History of previous surgery
History of trauma
General medical history
Seasonal or daily variation in symptoms

Inspection

Look at the external nose and face before you look into it. Ask the patient to take off any glasses they may be wearing. Look at the nose from the side as well as in front. A deviated nose is often best looked at by looking from above. Look for any of the following:

Obviously bend, deformity or swelling
Scars or abnormal creases across the nose
Redness or evidence of skin disease
Discharge or crusting
Offensive smell

To inspect the nose, fist look into the very front of the nose (anterior nares) by tipping the tip of the nose up with a finger and looking inside without a speculum.
After this you may choose to use a speculum with a torch or head mirror.
Probably the best way of examining the nose for undergraduates and general pratitioners is to use an otoscope with a very wide end on it. The head mirror is excellent for this purpose, but it take a while to get used to and if you only have two weeks, it may not be worth your while. Otolaryngologists use either a head mirror or illuminated spectacles.
The Thudicum speculum is used to open up the nose, this take practice to use correctly but is very useful if you wish to instument the nose for any reason. You will need to be shown how to hold this correctly.

Inside the nose you should be able to identify the nasal septum medially and the turbinates laterally. It should nearly always be possible to see the inferior turbinate, the middle turbinate may be more difficult. The superior turbinate is of little importance in examination and is very small.

Try to assess if there is any inflammation (rhinitis) and if the septum is straight or deviated to one side.
If you see what you think is a polyp, it is useful to see if it is sensitive. Swollen turbinates are often mistaken for polyps: a polyp is insensitive whereas a turbinate is quite tender to touch. Try touching it gently with a blunt probe to measure this. Polyps tend to have a slightly grey / yellow colour whereas turbinates or more commonly pink.

In children, a foreign body may occasionally be seen inside the nose, this is usually accompanied by an offensive, unilateral nasal discharge.

Look inside the mouth as well, occasionaly large nasal polyps and tumours may be visible arising from behind the soft palate. It is not normally possible to view the nasopharynx on routine examination, and this is either done using a mirror and headlight or an endoscope. Undergraduates will not be expected do be able to undertake this examination.

To assess the nasal airway there are a variety of bedside techniques: 1. Hold a cold metal tongue depressor under the nose while the patient exhales. If there is reasonable airflow, there should be some condensation under both nostrils.
2. Occlude one nostril with a thumb and ask the patient to sniff. This gives a reasonable idea of the patency of the airway.

Of course, the nasal airway changes with posture, time of day and a variety of other factors, so it is very difficult to measure the nasal resistance accurately in a way which reflects the patients' actual perception of nasal obstruction. A variety of instruments are in use to attempt to do this (rhinomanometery) but their use is largely as a research tool.

The smell is not routinely assessed in nasal examination as this can be very subjective. On occasions where there is a need to assess smell, this is done using a series of bottles containing specific odours. Usually asking specifically about sense of smell in the history is enough.

Nasal Obstruction and Rhinitis section Facial Pain and Sinusitis section

Ear Nose Throat Neck

Throat Examination
The throat examination includes a thorough examination of the oral cavity.

History

As the mouth and throat can have a variety of different clinical problems it is more difficult to generalise about history taking.
ENT Examination Unit is always important to ask about a history of tobacco or alchohol usage and if the mouth is involved, if there is any relevant dental history. A number of systemic diseases may present with oral syptoms and signs - a reasonable medical history is often required.

Examination

Pressing the tongue down with a wooden spatula and peering in with a dim torch is often the extent of the majority of medical examinations of the mouth, it is however, insufficient. The mouth contains a number of recesses and sites which are not routinely examined such as the floor of the mouth, and these may contain occult malignancies or other pathology. The mouth should be examined systematically.

Use the brightest torch you can. Start by examining the mouth without a tongue depressor and note the condition of the tongue. Pressing down on the tongue with a tongue depressor wil allow you to examine the back of the tongue and tonsils (see diagram). You should also be able to inspect the uvula and soft palate.
To inspect the hard palate ask the patient to tip their head back, until you can see the whole hard palate all the way to the front teeth.
Next examine the buccal region and the gingivolabial / gingivobuccal sulcus - the space between the cheek and the gums, all the way from the front to the back where the cheek meets the ascending ramus of the mandible at the so called retro-molar trigone.
Ask the patient to stick their tongue upwards and now examine the floor of the mouth.

Examination of the nasopharynx and larynx are done by using mirrors or flexible fibre-optic nasendoscopes. You will not be required to do this as undergraduate.

remember that to adequaltely examine the mouth you should inspect:

tongue
hard and soft palate
tonsillar fossa
gingivolabial / gingivobuccal sulci
floor of mouth / undersurface of tongue
Article Source:
http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/ENT/otolaryngology%20examination%20technique.htm

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